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浙江11选5的走势图:自考高級英語上冊 Lesson 15 The Beauty Industry

Lesson 15: The Beauty Industry美容用品業

The one American industry unaffected by the general depression of trade is the beamy industry.

美國工業中惟一未受貿易大蕭條影響的是美容用品業。

American women continue to spend on their faces and bodies as much as they spent before the coming of the slump經濟蕭條前—about three million pounds a week.

美國婦女仍不斷在她們的臉上和身體上花費與經濟蕭條到來之前同樣多的錢——每周約300萬英鎊。

These facts and figures are "official", and can he accepted as being substantially 充分true.

這些事實與數字都是官方的,可大致屬實。

Reading them. I was only surprised by the comparative 相對較小smallness of the sums expended.

當讀到這時,我只為花費的數目相對較小而感到驚奇。

From the prodigious巨大 number of advertisements of aids to beauty contained in the American magazines,

從美國雜志上鋪天蓋地的化妝品廣告來看,

I had imagined that the personal appearance business must stand high up among the champions of American industry—the equal, or only just less than the equal, of bootlegging販賣私酒 and racketeering,敲詐勒索 movies and automobiles.

從美國雜志上鋪天蓋地的化妝品廣告來看,我原以為美容用品業一定居美國工業群雄之首,與販賣私酒和敲詐勒索,電影和汽車業并駕齊驅或稍遜一籌。

Still, one hundred and fifty-six million pounds a year is a tidy 相當大的sum.

雖然如此,每年 1億 5,600萬英鎊是一個相當不小的數目,

Rather more than twice the revenue收入 of India, if I remember rightly.

如果我沒有記錯的話,超出印度年收入的兩倍。

I do not know what the European figures are. Much smaller undoubtedly.

我不知道歐洲的數字是多少,毫無疑問要小得多。

Europe is poor, and a face can cost as much in upkeep as a Rolls-Royce.

歐洲很窮,保養一張臉需要花費和保養一輛羅爾斯——羅伊斯牌汽車一樣多的錢。

The most that the majority of European women can do is just to wash and hope for the best.

大多歐洲婦女最多只能洗洗臉,聽天由命。

Perhaps the soap will produce its loudly advertised effects;

也許肥皂會產生廣告中大肆宣揚的效果,

perhaps it will transform them into the likeness of those ravishing creatures who smile so rosily and creamily紅潤白嫩, so peachily艷如桃李 and pearlily美若珠肌, from every hoarding廣告牌.

也許能把她們變成像那些在每塊廣告牌上綻開令人陶醉的紅潤白嫩、艷如桃李、美若珠璣般笑容的女郎。

Perhaps, on the other hand, it may not.

另一方面,或許肥皂不具有這種效能。

In any case, the more costly experiments in beautification are still as much beyond most European means as are high-powered motor-cars and electric refrigerators.

無論怎樣,在裝飾自己上更為昂貴的試驗和大馬力汽車及電冰箱一樣都是歐洲人的經濟能力所不及的。

Even in Europe, however, much more is now spent on beauty than was ever spent in the past.

然而即使在歐洲,如今花在化妝品上的錢比過去任何時候都要多得多,

Not quite so much more as in America, that is all.

只不過比起美國來要遜色些罷了。

But, everywhere, the increase has been undoubtedly enormous.增長無疑是巨大的

但無論在任何地方,增長無疑是巨大的。

The fact is significant.

這一事實意義重大。

To what is it due?

為什么會出現這種現象呢?

In part, I suppose, to a general increase in prosperity繁榮.

我認為部分是由于普遍增長的繁榮。

The rich have always cultivated their personal appearance.

有錢的人總是追求個人容貌的修飾,

The diffusion擴散 of wealth—such as it is—now permits those of the poor who are less badly off than their fathers to do the same.

財富的擴散——盡管程度并不大,境況比其父輩稍好一些的窮人也能這樣做。

But this is, clearly, not the whole story.

 但顯然這并非事情的全部。

The modern cult of beauty is not exclusively 不隻是a function (in the mathematical sense) of wealth.

現代對美貌的狂熱崇拜并不只是財富的作用(從數學意義上看),

If it were, then the personal appearance industries would have been as hardly hit by the trade depression as any other business.

因為如果是這樣,那么美容用品業就會和其他企業一樣受到貿易蕭條的沉重打擊。

But, as we have seen, they have not suffered.

但是正如我們所見,它并未受到損失。

Women are retrenching緊縮 on other things than their faces.

女人們在美容之外的一切方面緊縮開支,

The cult of beauty must therefore be symptomatic of changes that have taken place outside the economic sphere

因而對美貌的狂熱崇拜必定表現了經濟領域以外產生的變化。

. Of what changes? Of the changes, I suggest, in the status of women; of the changes in our attitude towards "the merely physical."單純是肉體的變化

什么變化?我認為表現了婦女地位的變化,表現了我們對“單純是肉體”的態度的變化。

Women, it is obvious, are freer than in the past.

很顯然,婦女比過去自由了,

Freer not only to perform the generally unenviable social functions hitherto 迄今為止reserved保留to the male,

不僅在完成迄今為止由男性完成的并值得羨慕的社會職能上比較自由了,

but also freer to exercise the more pleasing, feminine privilege of being attractive.

而且在運用更令人愉快的女性吸引力的特權上比較自由了。

They have the right, if not to be less virtuous than their grandmothers, at any rate to look less virtuous貞淑.

如果她們沒有權利不如祖母們貞淑,至少可以有權利看起來不那么貞淑。

The British Matron, not long since a creature of austere嚴峻 and even terrifying aspect,

英國的命婦不久前還是神色嚴厲可怕的人物,

now does her best to achieve and perennially 永久preserve保持 the appearance of what her predecessor前輩 would have described as a Lost Woman. She often succeeds.

現在也盡一切努力獲得并常年保持她的前輩會稱作為蕩婦的外表,她們常能做到這點。

But we are not shocked—at any rate, not morally shocked.

但我們并不感到震驚,至少在道德上沒有震驚。

Aesthetically shocked—yes; we may sometimes be that. But morally, no.

審美上受到震驚——是的,有時是這樣,但道德上沒有

We concede 讓步that the Matron is morally justified正當的 in being preoccupied with her personal appearance.

我們作出讓步,承認命婦專注于個人容貌在道德上是正當的,

This concession讓步 depends on another of a more general nature—a concession to the Body, with a large B, to the Manichaean principle of evil

這一讓步是基于另一個性質更為一般的讓步,即將帶有大寫B的肉體讓與摩尼教中說的邪惡,

For we have now come to admit that the body has its rights.

因為我們現在已經承認了肉體具有自己的權利。

And not only rights—duties, actually duties. It has, for example, a duty to do the best it can for itself in the way of strength and beauty.

而且不僅是權利——還有責任,具體的責任。例如它有責任在力與美方面盡其所能地使自己得到滿足。

Christian-ascetic ideas no longer trouble us.

基督教的禁欲主義不再令我們不安。

We demand justice for the body as well as for the soul.

我們要求靈魂以及肉體都能得到公正的對待。

Hence, among other things, the fortunes made by face-cream manufacturers and beauty-specialists, by the vendors of rubber reducing belts and massage machines, by the patentees of hair-lotions and the authors of books on the culture of the abdomen.腹部線條

因此其結果之一便是雪花膏生產者和美容專家、橡膠減肥帶及頭油專利者和保持腹部線條指導書的作者們大發其財

What are the practical results of this modern cult of beauty?

 ——現代對美貌的狂熱崇拜造成的具體結果是什么?

The exercises and the massage, the health motors and the skin foods—to what have they led?

鍛煉與按摩機和護膚用品——它們造成了什么結果?

Are women more beautiful than they were?

女人們比過去漂亮了?

Do they get something for the enormous大量 expenditure of energy, time, and money demanded of them by the beauty-cult?

由于對美貌的崇拜使她們花去大量的精力、時間和金錢,她們從中獲得了什么嗎?

These are questions which it is difficult to answer. For the facts seem to contradict themselves.

這些都是很難回答的問題,因為事實似乎互相矛盾。

The campaign for more physical beauty seems to be both a tremendous success 巨大的成功and a lamentable failure可悲的失敗, It depends on how you look at the results.

為取得更豐富的體貌美的運動似乎既是巨大的成功也是可悲的失敗,看你如何看待。

It is a success in so far as more women retain their youthful appearance to a greater age than in the past.

從更多的女人比過去更長久地保持年輕外貌這一點看,這是個成功。

"Old ladies" are already becoming rare.

“老太太”已經很少見了。

In a few years, we may well believe, they will be extinct絕跡.

我們可以相信,幾年后她將絕跡。

White hair and wrinkles, a bent back and hollow cheeks will come to be regarded as medievally 中世紀old-fashioned.

滿頭白發、滿臉皺紋、彎腰曲背、兩頰深陷會被看作是中世紀般的過時

The crone of the future will be golden, curly 卷曲and cherry-lipped, neatankled勻側 and slender.

未來的老太婆將有卷曲的金發,櫻桃紅唇,勻側腳踝,苗條身材。

The Portrait of the Artist's Mother will come to be almost indistinguishable難以分辯, at future picture shows, from the Portrait of the Artist's Daughter.

在未來的畫展上,藝術家母親的畫像與其女兒的畫像將變得幾乎難以分辨,

This desirable consummation will be due in pan to skin foods and injections of paraffin-wax, facial surgery, mud baths泥浴, and paint, in part to improved health, due in its turn to a more rational mode of life.

這一令人滿意的結果一部分是由于有了護膚品和使胸部豐滿的石蠟,整形外科,泥浴,化妝品,另外也由于更合理的生活方式造成的健康狀態的改善。

Ugliness is one of the symptoms of disease, beauty of health.

丑陋是疾病的癥狀之一,美則是健康的象征。

In so far as the campaign for more beauty is also a campaign for more health,it is admirable and, up to a point, genuinely successful.

爭取更多美麗的運動就是爭取更健康的運動,就這點而言,是值得贊許的,并且在一定程度上是真正獲得了成功。

Beauty that is merely the artificial shadow of these symptoms of health is intrinsically of poorer quality than the genuine article.

模仿出來的象征健康的美本質上就比真貨質量差,

Still, it is a sufficiently good imitation(模仿) to be sometimes mistakeable for the real thing.

然而模仿技術有時足以亂真。

The apparatus器具 for mimicking模仿 the symptoms of health is now within the reach of every moderately prosperous person;

以仿造健康狀態的設備現在每一個中等富裕的人都可以買得起;

the knowledge of the way in which real health can be achieved is growing, and will in time, no doubt, be universally acted upon.

用有關真正健康方面的知識也在不斷增加,且無疑終將被所有人采用。

When that happy moment conies, will every woman be beautiful—as beautiful, at any rate, as the natural shape of her features, with or without surgical and chemical aid, permits?

當那個幸福時刻來臨之時,是否每個女人都會很美麗——至少和她五官的自然形狀在有或沒有外科手術或化物品的幫助下同樣美麗?

The answer is emphatically斷然的: No. For real beauty is as much an affair of the inner as of the outer self.

回答是斷然的:不是。真正的美,內在與外表同樣重要。

The beauty of a porcelain jar陶器罐 is a matter of shape, of colour, of surface texture.

細瓷瓶美在外形、色彩、質地。

The jar may be empty or tenanted by spiders, full of honey or stinking slime

罐子可能是空的,也可能為蜘蛛盤踞,裝滿蜂蜜或又臭又粘的液體,

—it makes no difference to its beauty or ugliness.

而這一切都不影響瓷瓶的美與丑

But a woman is alive, and her beauty is therefore not skin deep.

但人是活生生的,因而她的美不是表面的。

The surface of the human vessel is affected by the nature of its spiritual contents.

人這種容器受其精神內涵的影響。

I have seen women who, by the standards of a connoisseur of porcelain, 瓷器鑒賞家were ravishingly lovely.

我見過一些女人,如果用瓷器鑒賞家的標準來衡量,她們可愛得迷人。

Their shape, their colour, their surface texture were perfect. And yet they were not beautiful.

她們的外形、色彩、表面質地都完美無缺,然而她們卻不美,

For the lovely vase was either empty or filled with some corruption.

因為這可愛的花瓶不是空空如也便是充滿了某種腐朽,

Spiritual emptiness or ugliness shows through.

精神空虛或靈魂丑惡透過外表顯露出來。

And conversely, there is an interior light心靈的光芒 that can transfigure forms that the pure aesthetician would regard as imperfect or downright ugly.

相反,有種心靈的光芒可以把純唯美主義者們認為有缺陷或簡直是丑陋的外形變得美好。

There are numerous forms of psychological ugliness.

多種形式的心理丑陋,

There is an ugliness of stupidity, for example, of unawareness (distressingly common among pretty women). An ugliness also of greed, of lasciviousness好色的, of avarice. 還有貪心、淫蕩、貪婪無厭。

例如愚蠢、無自知之明(在漂亮女人中此現象普遍得令人苦惱),

All the deadly sins, indeed, have their own peculiar 奇特的negation of beauty.

一切遭天譴的大罪都以其奇特的方式損壞美。

On the pretty faces of those especially who are trying to have a continuous "good time,"

在那些漂亮的臉蛋上,特別是在那些企圖不?!跋砝幀鋇娜說牧車吧?,

one sees very often a kind of bored sullenness that ruins破壞 all their charm.

常??梢鑰吹揭恢盅峋氳?、陰沉的神情,破壞了他們的容貌。

I remember in particular two young American girls I once met in North Africa.

我特別記得我曾在北非遇見的兩個年輕美國女郎。

From the porcelain specialist's point of view, they were beautiful.

從瓷器專家的觀點來看,她們是美麗的,

But the sullen boredom of which I have spoken was so deeply stamped into their fresh faces,

但我上面談到的那種陰沉厭倦的神情如此深深地刻在了她們年輕的臉上,

their gait步態 and gestures 姿態expressed so weary a listlessness, that it was unbearable to look at them.

她們的步伐和姿態表現出無聊與無精打采,真讓人受不了。

These exquisite creatures were positively repulsive.

這些精美的人物的確令人厭惡。

Still commoner and no less repellent is the hardness which spoils 損壞so many pretty faces.

更為常見且同樣使人反感的是損害了漂亮面孔的冷酷表情。

Often, it is true, this air of hardness is due not to psychological causes,

誠然,冷酷的表情有時不是出于心理原因,

but to the contemporary 當代habit of over-painting.

而是當今面部過度化妝的習慣引起的。

In Paris, where this over-painting is most pronounced, many women have ceased to look human at all.

在過度化妝非常明顯的巴黎,許多婦女已經根本不像人了。

Whitewashed and ruddled, they seem to be wearing masks.

刷白涂紅以后,他們像戴上了面具。

One must look closely to discover the soft and living face beneath-

你必須仔細看才能看出濃妝下柔軟的有生命的面孔。

But often the face is not soft, often it turns out to be imperfectly alive.

但是那張臉常常并不柔軟,常?;岱⑾炙煌耆瀆?,

The hardness and deadness are from within.

那冷酷與木然是從內心發出的,

They are the outward and visible signs of some emotional or instinctive 本能的disharmony,

是某種感情或本能上存在的不和諧的外部跡象,

accepted as a chronic condition of being.

被視作生存本身的慢性病疾。

We do not need a Freudian to tell us that this disharmony不調和 is often of a sexual nature.

不需任何弗洛伊德式的心理分析家來告訴我們,此種不和諧常常與性問題有關。

So long as such disharmonies continue to exist, so long as there is good reason for sullen boredom, so long as human beings allow themselves to be possessed 惡夢中and hagridden by monomaniacal vices, the cult of beauty is destined to be ineffectual.

只要這種不和諧繼續存在下去,只要有陰沉厭倦的理由,只要人允許自己沉溺于罪惡之中被其糾纏困擾,那么對美貌的狂熱崇拜便注定會是徒勞的。

Successful in prolonging the appearance of youth, or realizing or simulating the symptoms of health, the campaign inspired by this cult remains fundamentally a failure.

這一崇拜所激起的這場運動雖能成功地延遲外貌的衰老或使人獲得或模仿出象征健康的美來,但從根本上仍是失敗的,

Its operations do not touch the deepest source of beauty—the experiencing soul.

它的作用未能觸及美的最深的源泉——感受中的靈魂。

It is not by improving skin foods and point rollers, by cheapening health motors and electrical hair-removers, that the human race will be made beautiful;

人類不能通過改進護膚品和卷發器或通過降低健身機和電動除毛器的價格使自己更美起來,

it is not even by improving health.

甚至也不能通過增進健康來實現。

All men and women will be beautiful only when the social arrangements give to every one of them an opportunity to live completely and harmoniously,

所有男女只有在社會一切安排使他們每個人都能得到機會過完整和諧的生活時才能是美的,

when there is no environmental incentive and no hereditary tendency遺傳因素 towards monomaniacal vice.

只有在沒有環境刺激、沒有遺傳因素使他們沉溺于罪惡之中時才能是美的。

In other words, all men and women will never be beautiful. But there might easily be fewer ugly human beings in the world than there are at present.

換言之,不會所有的男女都是美的,但是很可能世界上會比過去少些丑陋的人。

We must be content with moderate hopes.

我們不能有過高的希望。
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